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Messages - Rev. Ma'atnofret

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A. The name of the god Khnum is not definitely etymologize; maybe it is related to arab "aries". The äg verb hmn "to form" seems to be derived from the name of God. The name must be separated from that of the Dekangestirns Knum and that of the Theban god Kneph (Kematef), although all three are in the Greek -ag. Magic have given traits to the god of protection. Originally probably a pure animal god - ovis longipes palao aegyptiacus - he is already represented in the AR like other animal gods (mixed form) as a person with a ram's head (gods, animals).

B. Numerous places of worship in the above, setener in the above: Area of ​​the 1st cataract "Khnum, Lord of the cataract" (nb qbhw), who is also venerated in Gebel es-Silsile and Theban.- "Lord of Bigga "(Snmt). - "Khnum in (hrj jb) Elephantine", the temple there probably goes back at least to Thutmose I, sacrificial foundations by Thutmose III. Ram burials (animal burial); Triad: Khnum, Satet and Anuket since MR. - Aswan.- "Khnum at the head (hntj) of Philae". - Kom Ombo. - Edfu- Esna, temple probably goes back to the 18th dynasty; Thutmose III mentioned in inscriptions of the Roman era. - Dendera - Nj3wt at Abydos- Hypselis.- Hermupolis.- Antinoe (Heru-wer) since AR. - Jw-rd with Beni Hassan since AR. - Kaft Ammär, 21 oäg Gau. - Memphis, "Khnum in front of his wall", maybe instead of an anonymous god. - 2 u.äg Gau "Khnum at the top of his path (hntj w3t.f)," later "of his rope (hntj w3rt.f)". From the cataract area, the cult of Khnum has been spread far to Nubia, where he mostly bears the names "Lord of the cataract" or "Lord of Bigga": Debod.- Beit el-Wali. - Dendur. - Dakke. - Amada. - Qasr Ibrim. - Kumma and Semna, temple of the "Khnum, who fends off the arch peoples," and the deified Sesotris III.

C. The partly demonstrably high age of the places of worship and the essentially similar validity of God make it impossible to designate a place as his original 'home'. Against the conception of the Khnum as an original local god (gods, local) it also speaks that in the FrZT the title "servant" (hm) or "prophet" (hm ntr) of the Khnum is found several times as a palace title, whereby the meaning this khnum is uncertain; Kaplony thinks of a patron god of the throne. The god will be one of the oldest gods who, in historical times, were split up into a multitude of gods with the same name but locally differentiated (splitting of the gods). Despite all the local differences, one can probably describe one's being with the terms of the creator god and producer. The name formation Khnum-Ra, which is documented early on (MR), is based on this, especially for the god of Elephantine. Furthermore, in the cataract area, together with the goddesses Satet and Anuket, he is considered to be the bringer of the Nile water (Nile springs) and thus the giver of fertility. This brings him in connection with the crocodile god Sobek (FIG.). In Esna he connects with the goddess Menhit, who is identical with Nit as the original goddess. Both son is the god Heka. Menhit, for her part, is equated as the lioness of Tefnut, with which Khnum = Shu and both son Heka - born in Antinoe, his female counterpart is the midwife Heqet, a frog goddess. This khnum in particular is considered to be an obstetrician (birth legend). Outside of theology, too, he is credited with the creation of the individual human being like the king. This activity is illustrated in the God who forms the human being on the potter's wheel; and that is why he is sometimes called a 'potter' in general. As a giver of fertility and creator of "gods, people, animals and plants" he becomes the primordial and creator god par excellence and, like others as an androgynous primordial god, bears the epithet "father of fathers, mother of mothers," without prejudice to his cultic connection with goddesses. In this capacity he is felt to be related to Ptah and less to Amun; and it is probably related to this when he named a multitude of Khnum gods, probably because of the cult-topographical multiplicity of the god and because of his omnipresent activity. In the SpZT there are 7 Khnum gods who are creatures of a primordial Khnum. On the basis of cult topography there is an explanation that the four most important cults of Khnum are in Elephantine, Esna, Hypselis, Antinoe dei cults of the "four living ram gods", each of which is the 'souls' (= Ba; pun between Ba "soul" and Ba "Aries") of Ra, Shu, Osiris, and Geb his. It is still not certain to what extent Khnum is also to be regarded as an oracle god. As the god of birth, he becomes the lord of destiny, and in the Suncretistic figure of Khnubis he comes into contact with the Agathos daimon. Even if an actual oracle practice with him is not known, one thinks of him or of a possible after-effects of oracles in the story of the prophesying lamb (= ram?) Of Bokchoris and that of the potter's oracle (potter = Khnum?); an epithet like "who foretells the coming" would also point in this direction.

D. Feasts of the Khnum are known through the Thutmose III Foundation for Elephantine and especially through the Esna festival calendar with processions and visits to the gods, including that of the Nit of Sais.

E. Priests of local cults were occupied from the French to the late. It is worth mentioning the name of the priest of Kafr Ammar (21 oäg Gau) in Greco-Roman. Zt; the priest bears the title "who builds the body" (huz or qd h'w), the priestess is called Hnmt, i.e. the Chnumin or the "Bildnerin".

F. Personal names formed with the name Khnum see Badawi, op. Cit., 59 ff.

[PUBLIC] Welcome! / Re: Hi everyone
« on: March 01, 2021, 04:49:16 pm »
em hotep and welcome!


Unut (Wnwt), mistress of Wnw (name of the older capital of the 15th or later district of Wnwt). Because of the determination of the name with the hieroglyph Gardiner, EG, Signlist, I 12 "upright cobra" since the time of the coffin texts, it has been a snake goddess, according to Assmann it means "the quick one". As a snake, Unut falls into the circle of the urea / crown goddesses, possibly splitting into two goddesses with the name Unut. In a document from Dendara, Unut is portrayed as a rabbit-headed with rabbit ears; there is likely to be a late reinterpretation due to the spelling of the name with the characters "rabbit". Rabbit-headed gods and goddesses appear several times in documents from the 21 dynasty, but never with names; their naming must therefore remain open.

[PUBLIC] Welcome! / Re: Mimi says Hi
« on: February 01, 2021, 04:52:01 pm »
em hotep and welcome!

[PUBLIC] Netjer (Our Gods & Goddesses) / Re: She is cozy on my couch
« on: February 01, 2021, 10:24:11 am »
This all sounds like a lovely experience!

The goddess vibes you listed make me think of a cat. Cozy place to sit, plenty of yummies, and shinies.
But your experiences may vary and the journey of experiencing these is wonderful!

Sopdu / Soped, Assyrian sapti / u is the name of a Falekn god; spd means "pointed", "clever". In the Pyr Sopdu is sometimes a crocodile, "pointed to the teeth", but originally he was a god "pointed to the claws", the epithet spd being a play on words. In the Pyr this god has an important religious function and also takes the name Horus and then appears like Horus as the son of Osiris and Isis. In connection with Sopdu, the Pyr mention the ksbt tree; Chensit appears there as the head ornament of Sopdu. From the beginning of the 2nd dynasty of the time of Hetepsechemui, the vessel closure of Prince Prj-nb, on which the u. Workhouse and a "worker" of Sopdu are mentioned; jrj (jht) is to be understood as a "priest" in this context. The plant is located in the city of Jpwt, probably in the eastern delta. The place is also mentioned in two jug inscriptions from the step pyramid of Djoser; its owner is a priest of Sopdu Prj-nk3. The inscription fragment from ABydos of another Sopdu priest comes from around the same time. The priest of Sopdu from the time of Snofru or Cheops is Ph-r-nfr in Saqqara; he was at the same time a priest of Thoth and in the Delta. Two domains from the 5th dynasty are called "Sopdu loves Kakai (= Neferirkare)" and "Sopdu wants Unas to live" (from the mortuary temple of Unas).
The earliest depictions of Sopdu show him in the mortuary temple of Sahure as an Asian; He is not named by name, but is called "Lord of Foreign Lands," is bearded, has two high feathers on his head, long hair and a short skirt. "Seth, Lord of Ombos" is depicted in front of him; both lead Asian prisoners. In the same temple, Sopdu appears with the full name and the same epithet, this time together with "Thoth, Lord of the Jwntjw." In a ship scene in this temple, Sahure is "loved by Thoth and Sopdu." In the mortuary temple of Niuserre, Sopdu appears bearded and wreathed with flowers; in the same place, in another depiction, he wore the szmt belt (Schesemtet belt), which is his own. Ssmt is the aeg. Word for malachite, from which copper is extracted. A country of the szmt is mentioned in connection with Sopdu and has often been equated with Sinai. There, szmt is mentioned very rarely in the Dinai inscriptions and is always associated with minerals that do not occur on Sinai. The place of the Sopdu in the delta has been equated with szmt, but recently the older alignment with Gosen has been used again.
In the story of Sinuhe, Sopdu appears in various aspects, e.g. as Harachte, a reference to his early relationship with Horus. Samseru is also mentioned in the Sinuhe narrative and also in inscriptions made from Saft el-Henna. In the Wadi Gasus not far from the Red Sea there was a stele of Sesostris II, "loved by Sopdu, Lord of the East." The first mention of Sopdu on Sinai (Serabit el-Chadim) also dates from the time of Sesostris II. The oldest mention of Sopdu in Magharah comes from the time of Amenemhet III. There was neither a temple nor a Sopdu chapel on Sinai. Petrie named a group of rooms in the temple of Serabit el-Chadim after Sopdu, when a secondary column inscription from the time of Hatshepsit and Thutmose III with the name of Sopdu was found in a small chapel originally intended for Hathor.
In Aeg itself, Hatshepsut had an inscription for Sopdu put up in her temple by Deir el-Bahari: Pharaoh as a griffin tramples the enemy and Sopdu says: "I will give you all the Mntjw of Asia." In a representation in Karnak, Thutmose III sacrifices turquoise, lapis lazuli and malachite to Amun as on Sinai; the king is followed by Sopdu.
Often is the scene of bringing eastern enemies through Sopdu. An early example of this is shown by Thutmose III and Sopdu, "Lord in the East." In the inscription of Minmose a place of worship called "The Two Hills of Sopdu" is mentioned. There were no doubt several other places of worship for Sopdu, one of which was in Memphis. Evidence for this comes from the 30th Dynasty. At the time of Ramses II, Sopdu was worshiped in the Eastern Delta as well as in the Gebel Murr and in the Gebel Abu Hassa. A fragmentary statue of Sopdu as a crouching falcon was found in Gebel Barkel, where it must have been clipped from Soleb. It bears the inscription "Amenhotep III, loved by Sopdu." Under Akhenaten, the name "Amenophis" on the base has been changed to Nebt-m3t-R '.
As the helper of Pharaoh, Sopdu appears not only in the N and O and not only in relation to the Asians, but also in general: Sopdu is also found in Taharqa's texts in Medinet Habu, where Taharqa once sacrificed to the Ka des Sopdu.
A fragment of an altarpiece for Sopdu from the time of Hakoris, apparently from the eastern delta, is in the museum of ALexandria; two similar pieces were found in Sidon, one with the name of Hakoris and the other possibly with the same royal name, together with the name of Sopdu. An altar fragment of this type from the same king also comes from Akko.
The actual main cult place of the Sopdu was Saft el-Henna (Pr-Spd) with the sanctuary "House of the Christ thorn bush." There was an inscription Ramses II, a group of statues from the 20-22 dynasty and other later material. The most important texts and representations come from the Naos of Nectanebos I: It contains statements about Sopdu and his connections with other gods, e.g. Bes.
Ptolemaic texts often name Sopdu and equate him with Horus and Schu, relate him to his Gau and call him the "oldest of Asia" and "heir of foreign countries." However, these late epithets are by no means indications that Sopdu was a foreign god, even though the oldest records show that he is a falcon god. His home in the delta brought him into contact with the Asians living there and the conflicts with them. As the conqueror of the Asians, he himself is trained as an Asian. Neither in texts nor in representations is he associated with foreign gods such as Baal, Astarte or Qadesh.
A relief of the Taharqa shows a triad of gods on lions: Reshef, Qadesh and a third god, who was wrongly viewed for Sopdu. A similar piece from Athens also portrayed Onuris as the 3rd god rather than Sopdu. Other connections with Asian gods are unknown. There is also no evidence of any relationship to music.

Chenti-irti, with his full name Mechenti-irti, is one of the deities who most magnificently reveal the religious conception of the Egyptians. Originally a falcon god (falcon) from Letopolis, he soon becomes an expressive figure of the Horus eye god, more precisely: the unified double being of the "seeing and blind God", with which corner figures the phased course of the heavenly gesture is described: the duration in the transformation. Ch., Soon fused with Hr-wr, is that God who comes to day in an eternal cycle through the night, who, without eyes, becomes sun-like anew after he has victoriously overcome the darkness (day-night rhythm, bright sky after clouds or night Solar or lunar eclipse). Blindness and seeing denote the extremely distant passage stations of the eye god. The god manifests a basic phenomenon of this world. Dark and light do not face each other in a dualistic way (dualism), rather Ch. Encloses being and nonbeing as a cycle. The mythical statement in the form of two punctual states of being is adequate for an aspective idea.

The essence of Chenti, which is seen as a double-sidedness, is also expressed in his name, at least since the NR. While the god in the AR is still undifferentiated and uniformly called Hntj-jrtj, not Hntj-n-jrtj, that is, an "eyes" god that is particularly emphasized on his organ of vision, the later spelling changes between Hntj-jrtj and Hntj-jrtj and in the graphical variant with the negation sign n seems to clarify the idea of ​​God at times without eyes. With this explanation, the "inconsistency" of the juxtaposition of the two forms should be cleared away.

Next to the text from Kom Ombo: "Hntj-n-jrtj in his figure of the mummy on the arid land, Hntj-jrtj when the sun and moon are in his face ..." where the supposed negative form is the bleak god, the positive form but are assigned to the seeing, there are innumerable counter-evidence. The much older text from the cave book, which says in the 4th section, 1st reg., 3rd image, Ra: "Horus, Mhntj-jrtj, h3trw - Ichneumon, Lord of the metamorphoses in Dat: Your two eyes be to you (given) so that you can see with them ... I light up your cavernous body with my sun disk .. "calls the eye god Mhntj-n-jrtj in the parallels. If the changing spelling could be traced back to the dynamis of the act of handing over the eyes, the determination with the negation sign n is one of the many clear counterexamples where Chenti expressly means "the Lord of the Eyes".
Not unmentioned is the possibility that the unknown mhntj is a negative end that can be determined with the negative sign, but it doesn't have to, ha, that this negative sign can even be replaced by the one-consonant sign, in accordance with the Egyptians' reluctance to fix the negative. The writing seems to me to be tied to local tradition.
In the language of an eye saga, Chenti is the sky god who loses his two star eyes (sun eye, moon eye) and receives them again, in cult as an offering, in the underworld through a deity. "Take the two eyes in your face so that you can see through them! Apply the two eyes to the one who has no eyes (mhr) ... Letopolis."
The eye god is a god of salvation, especially responsible for those with eye diseases; he can cure blindness, but also send it. Chenti becomes the god of musicians through the blind harpists and singers, above all the harpist. In addition, Chenti appears as the protector of the dead in the afterlife. He rules as judge, since "in the six halls of justice" (from Letopolis), his "eyebrows are the balance beam" and even brings demonic disaster (demon) to the dead, because "he judges according to what he knows". Besides, he has the rug of a snake fighter - perhaps via h3trj, d- Ichneumon.

The theology of God is particularly vivid through the popular religion, which also illuminates the meaning and spread of the cult, at least for the late period, better than the high form of religion. The blind side of the chenti is ingeniously embodied by the shrew, 'm'm, the visual side by the h3trh-ichneumon. The two animals are the polar figures of the light of heaven. The shrew, a subterranean animal born blind (mus caecus), which, according to Plutarch, is born on the night of the deepest darkness, is the mygale, which is raised by the mys at periodic intervals in twice the size of the species. Opposite this blind mouse, which belongs to the night side, is the Ichneumon as an animal living above ground with its beautiful large eyes, which, roughly speaking, mutated in the habit of the shrew, interlock in size. Even the young Ichneumon and the mouse mutated into a shrew are intertwined in size, so that the blind animal seems to change continuously into the animal. The legend of the Ichneumon, which contracts to the size of a mouse and then inflates again, is still handed down by Al-Gahiz and Ibn Manzur al-Ifriqi into the Arab Middle Ages, and the same ability of the shrew also helps the Egyptian magician. Swelling and swelling of the animals are analogous to the phase progression of heavenly light, which in the mythical thinking of the Egyptians is represented by the handing over of the eyes. The shrew and ichneumon also give the god its shape: humans with a shrew or ichneumon head or without a face.
If Horus-Chenti is the representative of the sighted blind God in one and the same place Letopolis, then he is incorporated into a cosmic cycle as the only blind side of the eye god, which includes not only Letopolis, but also Heliopolis-on in the east. Also under the name "Horus of Manu," i.e. of the western mountains, this evening sun god faces the god of the rising sun, the Harachte of On. The Latopolitan god of the sky is in tension with the Heliopolitan god like the blind god with the sighted god within the uniform structure of the Chenti of Letopolis. In the popular religion the figure of light is now the 'd-Ichneumon of Heliopolis, with which name, in contrast to the zool. Designation h3trj, the character of the "feeler" is designated, who as a fighter the (thunderstorm and darkening ) Detects snakes.
Chenti has been documented in writing since the Puramid texts, in the NR especially through the hereafter. His home and oldest place of worship is Letopolis, as the lord of which he is nicknamed "Lord (or First) of Hm". The place of worship there seems to have been htp sht, in the middle of Iit (Jjt). Since Letopolis was religiously but not politically leading, and since hardly any finds can be made there, Chenti, although the chief god, does not stand out in the over-deliverance that is brought to us, as it corresponds to his importance. Filia cults in Qus (Nenwen) and Kom Ombo evoked his reliance on Hr-wr, but due to the aforementioned interweaving, these are not specific to Chenti. In Athribis, Chenti was the main god, in other places of worship he is the "son of Ra", Nut, Osiris or Ptah.
The great veneration enjoyed by the eye god is shown by the bronze, mummy and coffin shrews and ichneumon bronzes, mummies and coffins that were spread in extraordinary numbers through the late animal cult. Both complementary animals appear coupled at least since Amenemhat III and are still shown in the geographical list of the Sanctuary of el-hibis, in the Gau procession of the Temple of Ipet in Karnak and in Kom Ombo and, starting from Letopolis, made their triumphant advance through the delta in Faijyum as well as to O .Äg held and this certainly in the wake of Chenti, also revered in the high religion. Chenti lives in the personal names p3 k3mm and spjj, which should not be called "the blind man", as previously assumed, but "that of the blind man" (horus-chenti).

The lion (panthera leo) from the family of cats (felidae), the Aeg. In its African-Near Eastern distribution forms the Berber lion (leo barbarus), Senegal lion and Persian lion (leo persicus) known and mainly referred to as rw and m3j (hz3) by them, was represented in the fauna of Egypt up to the SpZt. The depiction of lions therefore belongs since the Aeg. Before, among other things, the program of depictions of desert animals. The hunt for L. for the purpose of killing it is only on pallets. and then again from the MR as apparently the only royal privilege verifiable, the capture of L. - perhaps served for royal hunting in the game reserve. In addition, depictions of the NR show L. as the tamed companion of the king, and the depictions of L., which have been used since the FrZt, who wear collars and the like. are decorated, should make the L. catch likely for the purpose of his dressage from the AP.
The outstanding characteristics of L., which generally make him the "king of animals" from a human point of view, also shaped the image of the Aeg. from L. or the L. deities: His extraordinary strength and ferocity, his martial bravery, his terrifying roar and his prominent external feature, the mane of the male animal, which is from the Aeg. was emphasized as a characteristic of the L. shape par excellence regardless of the sex of the respective animal in the representation. In addition - as with all species of the cat family - the particularly close relationship between the lioness and her cubs, her prominent role in hunting and the appearance of L. at the limit of its habitat, i.e. on the outskirts of the Nile valley (the Äg. horizons, see horizon) and especially in the Wadi valleys, to the varied role of L. in the Äg. Religion as outlined below.

In the Äg. Pre. and FrZt shows the L. in a clearly religious context: In addition to L. figurines that functioned as game stones (board game) and amulets and larger figures from graves and temple areas, depictions on pallets, knife handles, seals, etc. the L. in close relation to kingship (Kg. in L.-Gestalt etc., see also III), to sanctuaries and to Westendorf - besides other mixed felids - to religious ideas of the course of the sun (sun). Those indicated here, ultimately not separable from one another. Traits of the role of L. as the image and figure of the king, as a warlike, divine protector and guardian against hostile powers and as an animal of the sun and horizon, i.e. divine-maternal agent at the daily rebirth of the sun, appear more clearly in later days and persist until the end of the day. History, but always together with the knowledge of its permanent dangers, such as Depictions of L. as a dangerous animal on the Horus steles, rituals for the appeasement especially of L. goddesses or corresponding epithets of L. deities.
A.R. Mainly female deities are to be found in L.-shaped deities, such as Sachmet from Memphis, Bastet from Bubastis, Matit from Deir el-Gebrawi, Mehit from This (Mescheich), Schesemtet from Saft el-Henne, Ment. Little is known about the functions of these goddesses from the time of the AR. Reliefs from the 4th and 5th DYN. show L. goddesses who suckle the king, hug him, etc., i.e. act as divine mothers of the king, as did the Pyr for Sachmet and Schesemtet. inspect. A relief fragment from the Zt des Neuserre shows a L.-headed goddess with a papyrus scepter, whose inscription according to Hoenes as "Bastet, Mistress of Life (nbt 'nh), Sachmet, Schesemtet, the Strong (wsrt), who appears with her Ba- Forces (Ba), Mistress of Chabes "is to be reconstructed. In addition to the close connection between the L. goddesses, which can already be seen here from the triple names, the epithets also refer to the function of the L. goddesses as maternal deities and to their power and danger corresponding to the L. figure, which also derives from the Meaning of their names should become recognizable, as far as this can be deduced:
Sachmet denotes the "powerful", Matit the "cutting", Mehit possibly the "gripping" (also the L.-shaped goddesses Pachet the "tearing" and Menhit of Esna the "choking").
Alone in the form of the double lion - since prehistory. and FrZt verifiable - or of the L. pair (rwtj, Ruti) and possibly only secondary evidence from the AR also on male, L.-shaped deities: The god Aker, including the embodiment of the earth and the two horizons and horizon gates , although from AR it has the shape of the double lion, its functions e.g. as guardians, double horizon animals and regeneration helpers of the sun, however, refer to an already original form as a double lion. Schu and Tefnut, as children of Atum, first generation of the Heliopolitan Ninth, are in the Pyr. with ruti, i.e. Vehl with the pair of lions from Leontopolis (Tell el-Jehudijeh), equated and addressed with their father as creator and sustainer of the gods. Although both gods like to be treated as a unit, Tefnut regularly appears in the depiction as L. goddess, Schu, on the other hand, receives the L. shape less often, which in his case indicates a secondary assumption of shape more than in Tefnut.
The guardian and protective function of the L. clarify e.g. the "gargoyles" in L.-shaped form on the temple roofs from AR, whose function and divinity will be confirmed in later Zt by corresponding inscriptions, and which also from AR in front of or at temple entrances and the like. occurring lion or. Sphinx figures (Sphinx, see also III), which, according to later inscriptions, represent the entry and point of departure into the non-terrestrial world in addition to that according to de Wit as representatives of the two horizons, which the Äg. Concept of the temple as a replica of the cosmos.
MR. In the MR the image of the L.-shaped goddesses changes little. Among the L. goddesses already mentioned, Pachet von Speos Artemidos can only now be proven, but is probably older, who in the coffin texts as "the great (wrt) with sharp eyes and effective claws, the lioness who sees and steals food at night "is described.
The relationship of the L.-shaped goddesses to the sky events or to the regeneration of the sun god becomes clearly more comprehensible: They are called, among other things, "Mistress of Heaven", "Daughter of Ra", with the sun's eye or the fire-breathing uraeus of the sun and Creator God and can also - not least because of their maternal role - adjust to the cow-shaped Hathor, heaven and mother goddess Uto, to Werethekau and other corresponding deities and appear as daughters of the sun god (see above): A process that presumably came earlier begins, but is only now beginning to be grasped and together with the increasing assimilation of the L.-shaped goddesses with one another from the NR it then becomes clear.
In addition, it can be seen in detail that the particularly close connection between the L. goddesses Sachmet and Bastet has developed into a characterization of the two main aspects of the essence of the L. goddesses: Sachmet characterizes more the soothed, maternal-protective part of the being. The goddess Tefnut, the dominant lion-like part of the siblings Schu and Tefnut, who, like the other L.-shaped goddesses, is adapted to the sun's eye, should - in addition to the connection of Hathor and others. with the L-shaped deities (see above) - based on their role in the MR demonstrable role in the myth motif of the search in connection with the eye of the creator god, initiated the relationship of the L goddesses with the myth cycle of the sent or distant sun eye, which is more clearly tangible from NR especially since other L. goddesses can take their place next to Schu.
The tradition of setting up or representing lion or. Sphinx-shaped gatekeepers and protective helpers - also as gargoyles - on temples, palaces, etc. is continued in the MR, as well as the use of L.- shaped amulets, game pieces, etc. New is the appearance of female and male L.- gods, of double lions and corresponding mixed figures (sphinx, griffin), partly. with the attribute of the sun disk, on the apotropaic magic knives (Bes, hippopotamus, Theoris).
 NO. The process of assimilating the L.-shaped goddesses with each other (from NR also in L.-shaped form the goddess Menhit von Esna) and their interweaving with others, the sun-eye-uraeus, etc. and thus also the female deities connected to the sun and creator god in their mother-daughter function as protective, enemies and life-renewing helpers expands: The L. goddesses now usually receive epithets such as "the great" ('3t, wrt), "mistress of heaven" (nbt pt etc.), "mistress of the gods" (hnwt ntrw), "mistress of the two countries" (hnwt t3wj) etc., are often addressed directly as the sun eye or forehead snake or daughter of the sun god (jrt R'w, nsrt u .ä., z3t R'w) and like to show the sun disk and uraeus as attributes. This circle is joined - at least now tangible - among others the vulture-shaped goddess Mut von Thebes, in whose temple the numerous statues of the Sekhmet were found, the snake-shaped Meresger and the forehead clasp Unut, which like the goddesses who were already shaped with L. associated female deities (such as Hathor, Uto) can usually appear from NR also with L. head or as L. snake hybrid beings; e.g. one, Sachmet-Bastet-Menhit, one, Sachmet-Neseret-Uto ... -Unut-Menhit, one, Pachet-the great- ... -Lord of Heaven - Werethekau, 'a, courage-mistress of Heaven-Sekhmet -... -Bastet-Eye of Ra -... '
The male deities, who are connected to the primary or secondary L-shaped goddesses as sun or creator gods or in the role of husband and son, can now regularly appear in L. or sphinx shape or be addressed as L. who are identified with these gods, such as Atum, Amun or Amun-Ra, Ptah, Nefertem, various Horus forms. In addition to these and the already mentioned double L.-shaped deities Aker and Ruti and the diverse L.-shaped guardian and protective demons, which are now particularly clearly recognizable within the books of the dead and underworld, a male L.- deity is also certain verifiable, whose name is Mahes (m3j bz3) - actually the designation for, lion or 'grim lion' - and which should therefore represent the divine male L. per se: Mahes appears accordingly as the son of Bastet and Sachmet (in parallel to Nefertem and other son deities, esp. Horus) and shows himself mainly as a warlike god destroying enemies.
For the first time connected features of the myth circle around the sun eye (cow book) show at the same time Hathor and Sachemet as its embodiment. In general, within the framework of this complex of myths, Onuris von Thinis, partner of the L. goddess Mehit, and Schu, partner of the L. goddess Tefnut, act as masculine combative companions of the sun eye, who can be set, but both usually do not have an L in this function .Shape.
Except deisen Äg. From NR, alien or externally influenced deities connected with L. also appear, e.g. the goddess Qadschu standing on an L. or the Astarte later depicted with an L. head or in the shape of a sphinx, they belong to the circle of the Äg. L.- figurative goddesses.
SpZt / ptol. Currently, there are more goddesses in the group of primary or secondary L.-shaped goddesses, such as the lioness Mentet (mntt), who is perhaps the successor of the lioness Ment, which can already be identified in the AR, and who can appear as a companion of Onuris alongside Mehit, or the Repit associated with Hathor, among others. The L. goddesses appear in the later sources in all of their previously sketched aspects, with their function as sun-eye and fire-breathing uraeus being particularly emphasized within the mythical allusions to the distant, i.e. Sun-eye dwelling in Nubia and soothing, as its companion and conqueror, in addition to Onuris-Schu, two forms, mostly restricted to the Nubian temples, now become tangible: Thoth von Pnubs and Arensnuphis, who shows the figure of L. as well as the human figure. The increasing importance of the male L.- deities from NR (see above), mainly in their warlike-protective and solar son or. Father-husband role, leads once in the SpZt to further connections between the L.-shaped and other, corresponding male deities (Uch, Haroeris, Somtus, etc.), on the other hand in Aeg. or Nubia to the appearance of two L. gods, the Nubian Apedemak and the tutu (tithoes), which is usually represented as a mixed sphinx with a snake tail.
The divine guardian and protective function of L., which has been demonstrable at all times since AR, also turns out to be fully alive in the late period with the introduction of the L.-shaped door lock (hkn, bolt).
III. L. and King. The close relationship between the L. and the Äg. Kingship can be summarized on two levels, which, however, are usually not separable from one another, as they merge into one another often enough: on the one hand the level of pictorial comparison (figurative expressions) up to the symbol, on the other hand that of the divine kind of the king as conceived in royal dogma.
The properties of L. (sI) predestine him for the visual comparison, the properties and functions of the king regarding (literary and representational), and enable his appearance as a royal symbol Apart from the clear comparisons in literature, this also includes representations of the Königs as "lion" (m3j (hz3) etc.), also e.g. the royal favor of being awarded the so-called L. Order, the royal privilege of L. hunting (see I) or the escort of the king by a tamed L.
On the other hand, AR sources already show the king, who is a living Horus and son of Ra according to the dogma, as the son of goddesses in the form of L. (see II, AR), and it was natural to consider him in this sonic aspect of the figure of his mothers and then - building on this - seeing the king as Horus and heir of the sun gods in L.- figure and portraying it accordingly: In the mixed figures Sphinx (L.- body and human head or face) and griffin (L. - body with wings and Human or falcon head). The numerous traditional sphinxes and griffins initially only represented the king dae according to their inscriptions and inscriptions, only later gods appear in this form (independent of the king) (cf. II), and also - but only occasionally - queens.
The design of thrones, beds (bed) and other furniture, of sacrificial tables, pedestals, rods and the like in L. form, which is also initially reserved only for the king or the royal family, is likely to affect both levels of the relationship between L. and L.- Deity and King go back, as do the pieces of royal costume (belt, jewelry, tail) from L. or Feliden.
Which for the Aeg. In the L.- figure in addition to his wildness representing protective, evil-repelling power and at the same time giving new life, because maternal power, initially only connected to the sky or sun god and the king as his living image and heir on earth, could then in the course of the Äg. History through the so-called democratization royal prerogatives in this world and afterlife are also claimed by private individuals, of which countless testimonies report.

A goddess in the form of a Janus-like symbol, possibly from Mesopotamia, with a human face, cow ears and horns (later heavily stylized as a spiral). This form is already occupied on early Dyn. Pieces, i.b. the Narmer palette (twice above, also as a frieze on the king's belt) and a bowl by Hierakonpolis; in the latter case there is a Djabiru stork opposite, which can be read as B3t as in Pyr. 1096 b, d. H. "Feminine Soul" (Ba). B. is the goddess of the 7th o.äg. Mentioned causes whose symbol represents the same fetish (Karnak, Shrine Sesostris 1; see fig.). A "head of the B. Gaues" and a "head of the Harims of the Bat" are known from the end of the AP. The B. fetish appeared in various ways as an emblematic motif, namely (with an attached ribbon, the so-called "Isis blood") as the official institution of the HRP-'h "Head of the Palace", but what dignity for him Bearer of the title hq3-B3t is very rarely recognizable. Since the 11th DYN. B. is closely connected to Hathor (city goddess of the capital in the east next to the 6th district), and therefore her symbol is attached to countless sistra and pillars, which refer to the cult of Hathor and thus later also to the cult of Isis. Already in the French period the symbol was framed with stars in two cases, which perhaps should indicate an epithet of Hathor nbt sb3w "Lady of the Stars". In the 19th DYN. On the neck of the heavenly cow Schentait in the Osiris temple Seti 1 there is a B.-shaped pendant. B3tjw (11th DYN) or B3t (NR) may be the original name of the 7th or similar. Gau capital (Diospolis Parva), which since the 12th DYN. normally Hwt-shm-Hpr-k3-r'-m3'-hrw means "The Cherperkare mansion (justified!) is mighty", later (NR) incorrectly declared as Hwt-shm "The mansion of Sistrum", which after further shortening when today's Hu city survived.

The goddess T. is recorded as the consort of Montu from MR in et-Tod, Armant and Medamud, and later also in Karnak, Dendera, (Tell) Edfu and Esna. After the advance of the Amon cult on almost all of the aeg. Places of worship Montu, even before Atum, cites the "Theban Ninth" expanded from the Heliopolitan Ninth; T (and sometimes Junet, who can take the place of Montu's wife in Armant, as well as Raettawy in later times) concludes this college of gods. Externally separated, both as opposite poles round off the cyclical history at which the ninth appears, i.e. especially sunrise and moon rise as well as the coronation, which are essentially regarded as "new births". T. wears the sign (Uterus winer Kuh, Gardiner F 45), which she shares with the goddess Mesechenet under special conditions, since she acts as a real and earthly acting power as the royal midwife, whereas T. on the same occasion about this In addition to the cosmic event "King's Birth" in its historically important (albeit locally relatively limited) position on the side of the Montu, the temporally infinite perspective guarantees, -In addition to the -sign, T. has other attributes, the selection of which is entirely determined by the context, in which she appears acting (not always in Month's presence): like the "vulture hood at the coronation of the Seanchkare-Mentuhotep in et-Tod, the uraeus snake (on the side of the junit) on the western outside of the naos in Edfu or the Crown of courage in the Greek-Roman birthplace in Armant, in which, as with the other attribute transfers, clearly an ad-hoc connection can be resolved at any time; its own The attribute is the symbol.

Name, of a goddess by the 4th DYn. until Roman times is occupied. Your name is written with the hieroglyph of the szmt belt as a phonetic sign or as a determinative. The oldest evidence of the goddess in vizier titulatures of the 4th Dyn. Suggests that Sch. is a personification ("those belonging to the szmt belt") of the numinous power that was suspected to be in the garment that is occupied as king and god robes. The term szmt for the belt can in turn be associated with szmt "malachite", which parts of the belt could have consisted of. In any case, Sopdu, as nb t3-szmt nb j3btt, is strikingly happy to wear the Schesemet belt over his apron.
Sch. is mentioned in the earliest documents always closely connected with Bastet, who can also be considered an early personification of an object belonging to the personal royal realm (ointment). It is therefore rather unlikely that in Sch. wanting to recognize a special goddess of the szmt country or to explain her name as a derivative of szmt "malachite".
The close connection to Bastet and their relationship to Sachmet bring about an equation of the three goddesses, which can be proven as early as the 5th Dyn. And automatically leads to Sch. can appear in pictorial representations as a woman with a lioness head.
Parallel to Sachmet, Sch. in the Pyr. called the mother of the king, in the CT she is also referred to alone as the mother of the dead. This maternal, protective power seems to be a basic feature of their nature. Even in Ramesside times the king spoke of being "suckled by Sch.", In Roman times that he was "protected by Sch."
The attachment to Sachmet and Bastet, which can be observed from the beginning, has two further effects: Sch. is on the one hand firmly integrated into a circle of specifically Memphite deities. With these she appears in a fixed order in lists of gods. 'Nb-t3wj is occasionally mentioned as their place of worship.
On the other hand, the lioness figure adopted by Bastet and Sachmet quickly (at the latest provable since the 13th Dyn.) Brings about the inclusion in the area of ​​the eye sagas, from where the step over the sun's eye to equation with the Uraeus, as with all lioness goddesses, is not far.
As a uraeus and lioness, Sch. in lists of gods like in a fixed list with Bastet, Sachmet, Uto or Weret-Hekau, also with Nehkbet, Mut, Unut and often referred to as Hathor and equated with these goddesses. As Uräus, Sch. "Companion of Ra, whom he loves, his only one", "Protector of Re, great mighty one, ... who accompanies her father Re". Her apotropaic character is emphasized when she is described as the destroyer of the enemies of Osiris.
Especially as a Uraeus, but as a lioness together with other Memphite deities, Sch. are worshiped everywhere in the country and does not seem tied to any fixed place of worship. In any case, an original place of worship that can be specifically assigned to her cannot be proven with certainty: she can have epithets as diverse as nbt nh-t3wj (Memphis), nb 3bw-rsj (Kalabsha), hrjt-jh Isrw (Karnak), "which in the middle of her lake resides in memphis "and nbt pwnt (punt) wear. Despite this widespread use, Sch. apparently had no cult of his own; the number of their priests is extremely small. For the NR is a "festival of the journey of the Sch." occupied for the last day of the 1st month of winter.

Tefnut Tefnut A. the name of the goddess Tefnut, which has been documented in mostly consonant spelling since the pyramid texts, should be transcribed äg tfnt (not tfnwt) and is Greek, still in PN as ______, etc. receive. Its meaning is controversial: at last it was explained as a derivation of the verb tf = "spit" plus n suffix ("the spit" or "the moisture"), earlier interpreted as "the sister" or "the woman". The "birth" of the Tefnut by spitting seems to be based on a pure play on words tfnt and says little about the meaning of this goddess.

B. In terms of nature, Tefnut was seen as "empty person" or "colorless figure". In fact, the texts hardly provide any information about their own characteristic person and function. There is nothing more to say in favor of Tefnut as the personification of the primordial element of moisture than the manner in which it originated or the connection between its name and the verb "spit". Further statements regarding the cleansing of the dead and their care are not typical for Tefnut, they apply e.g. to Schu or are within the framework of the general divine. The essence of the Tefnut is best shown in the relationships in which it stands to some deities and by which it is defined in most contexts and epithets:

a) Partner of Shu. According to the cosmogony of Heliopolis (Ninth), Tefnut is produced together with Schu by the primordial god Atum, either by masturbation or by expelling from the nose or mouth. As mutually complementary elements, this first pair of siblings "Shu and Tefnut" forms a close community that is so exemplary that other dualistic principles can be equated with these two gods: jrtj = "the two eyes" (left eye = sun corresponds to Shu, right eye = moon corresponds to Tefnut), the day and night barque, east and west, Neheh and Djet - the two terms of eternity, Ankh and Maat as principles of life and order (also Ankh / Anchet), in "nh dd w3s "the protective symbols on both sides of Osiris, which also function as heavenly pillars, and on the other hand a male; ocjer and female Djed pillar. Furthermore, Schu and Tefnut are venerated together as the lion-shaped couple Ruti in Leontopolis and have a double cult site in Heliopolis: the lower and upper canteen. These ntrwj '3wj, "the two great gods", as they can be called dualistic, play related parts in god myths of a singular tradition: according to pEbers 95, 8 they were born by Isis in Chemmis and are therefore considered to be children of Biti. In the story of the Naos of El-Arish they are the royal couple on earth, with their son Geb taking over rule after the death of his father. The relationships between SChu and Tefnut in the eye legends that can be documented in so many places in Aeg lead to the second area through which Tefnut is defined and through which she attains her later more prominent aspect of the wild goddess:

b) daughter of Ra (-Atum). While Tefnut is, on the one hand, the first female deity to be produced by the creator god (Atum, then Ra-Atum) and is thus his daughter who gives birth to the next generation of gods, on the other hand, she is also a kind of wife for him: during the self-generation process of Atum (creation ) it functions as the "hand of the atum" (god's hand) and thus receives a position similar to Nebet-hetepet and Iuasses. Most likely, however, this role requires their close association with the Wives of God. As the "daughter of Ra", a frequent epithet of the Tefnut, this goddess comes to the equation: daughter - eye - diadem - Uraeus - lioness, she becomes "mistress de Flamme" (fire), the one who held her on his head carries, protects and fends off its enemies. She shares this aspect especially with Sachmet, but it applies almost generally to female deities. Mythologically, however, Tefnut apparently embodies a specific quality of the divine eye: the ability to withdraw and return. Already in the coffin texts it is described how Tefnut and her brother SChu had separated from their father and he was looking for the two in the strange shape of the "single eye" (w't; that means the duality = "Schu-Tefnut" is missing him?). In another myth it appears in the connection:

c) Hathor-Tefnut. Since the NR faßar the circle of legends worked out by Junker about the exodus of the angry eye from Nubia: Tefnut, who lives as an angry, lion-shaped goddess far from Aeg, is missed by her father Ra because he loves her and needs her for his Schitz. Schu, the brother, and Thoth, the magician, set out on a search in the form of two monkeys and, when they have tracked them down, can only persuade Tefnut to go to Aeg to her father through magical games and promises. Once there, Tefnut transforms into the beautiful, peaceful female figure of Hathor, who, however, needs constant appeasement in the form of wine, music, dance and desert animals as food in order not to assume the form of the angry Tefnut again. Evidence of this legend can be found in almost all the late temples of Aeg and Nubia, whereby the goddess can merge with the various local forms of the feminine, especially: Pachet in Speos Artemidos, Hathor and Repit in Dendera, Nebetuu and Menhit in Esna, Nechbet in Elkab, Mehit in Thinis and Edfu, Sent-Nofret in Kom Ombo, Hathor, Tefnut, and Wepset in Philae, Tefnut in Dakke and other Nubian temples as well as Djedet. Various gods also appear as companions of the goddess: Onuris, Schu and Khnum, the latter especially in its form as Arensnuphis. The legend that, as a continuous narrative, only demot to one. (Sonnenauge, Demotic Mythos vom) and the Greek version is available, was interpreted differently: Junker tried above all to the origin and development of the myth, which he traces back to an old hunter's legend of Onuris and Mehit, which then deals with the ideas about Horus eye and the eyes of the sun god mixed up. Barta and E Brunner-Traut see the legend as a "natural myth about the solstice" (myth). Derchain has interpreted it as a parable for the phases of the moon that spread horror and joy. Tefnut as the left eye of the sun god is considered to be the moon early on, but also in later texts. Her figure as a lioness far from Aeg symbolizes the fear and insecurity in the darkness of the new moon nights, the change into the beautiful woman the joy and the opportunity to celebrate, love and revel in the full moon. This is linked to another interpretation of the deity Hathor-Tefnut - or, as a text in Philia says tellingly, "She is angry as Sachmet and peaceful as Bastet - as the two aspects of the feminine and the body: wildly combative and defensive as a lioness, tender, loving and erotic as a cat. The colors red and green are also attributed to these aspects by the Aeg.

C. The characteristics of the goddess in the myth described last determine the manifestations of her cult: it partly has orgiastic features (at one of her festivals with wine and singing, a priest of the Tefnut gets lost and comes into serious conflict with the strict regulations on abaton), On the other hand, it also contains rites that point to the cosmic character of the Tefnut: the reaching of the so-called "water clock" (wnsb or sbt) (Schebet), the sistren and the menit of the eye (s) (Udja eye), the Heh and Maat Sacrifice, the slaughter of the antelope, the annual repetition of the arrival of the Tefnut in Aeg with a nine-day trip (festivals). A Tefnut priest is known from the delta region who could be related to the worship of the pair of gods in Leontopolis or Heliopolis, but a place of worship specifically applicable to Tefnut cannot be determined. The reception stamp on Philae, the various rock temples, such as the one in Elkab, serve the idea of ​​the change of the goddess, who is addressed under local names, rather than the concrete divine person Tefnut.
Strangely enough, there is also no sculpture or cult statue that definitely represents Tefnut. groups from Meroe and a Roman group from Dendara are questionable. On the other hand, images of the Tefnut on temple walls are numerous, as a strange goddess she is at home everywhere. She appears either entirely as a lioness or as a woman, the most common mixed form shows a woman's body with a lioness head, which can also carry a snake or she can carry a sun disk.

D. The features of the goddess Tefnut summarized here sound incompatible: from the name of the one goddess of moisture, connected in cult and myth with the phases of the stars, from the pyramid texts to the eye legends of the SpZt, always inseparably linked with Schu and also with great Meaning for the sun god. A new approach to the original meaning of the Tefnut on which everything is based - which should initially only be regarded as a contribution to the discussion - is now possible through the term tfn, which is used in the Abusir papyri, and which denotes the deformation of metal objects. If the name Tefnut is understood as "you deform yourself," then you will find an excellent, descriptive description of the moon as the star, which par excellence contains change and deformation. Tefnut = "the deforming one" (moon) and Schu = "the drying one" (sun) result in the union of light and darkness, day and night, the dimension of time. Since one does not exist without the other, light defines itself through darkness, night through day and vice versa, "Schu-Tefnut" symbolizes the togetherness of mutually complementary pairs, the principle of dualism. The next generation Geb and Nut in the Heliopolitan creation of the world forms the second decisive condition of being: the space between heaven and earth. The role of the Tefnut in the cosmos would be on the one hand the principle of what can be changed in form (new moon / sickle / full moon, lioness / woman, distance / near), on the other hand the principle of complementation that goes with it: no sun without a moon, no day without it Night, no man without a woman, no peace without danger. The concrete experience of these principles referred to the moon, whose descriptive name tfnt became the divine person of the Tefnut.

Em hotep everyone!

I know that we are all familiar with LAGG (Lexikon der ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeichnungen) and the epithets that are translated from those volumes. But one of the biggest series of ancient Egyptian knowledge is from Lexikon der Agyptologie. It is a 6 volume series that has all manner of articles on nearly anything you want to know about in ancient Egypt. So while i was translating some articles I thought it might be useful to start posting the translations to help other people.

My translations are made using google translate so I apologize for the fracturing or confusion! Hopefully the points still come across. The series was also written/collected in 1986 so information may have changed/updated

[PUBLIC] Welcome! / Re: Em hotep!
« on: January 11, 2021, 01:11:22 pm »
Em hotep and welcome
The application for the beginners class is on the website. It is on the side bar.

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[PUBLIC] Welcome! / Re: Hi everyone!!!!
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