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Author Topic: Qadesh and Reshep  (Read 1540 times)

Offline Celeste913

  • Country: us
Qadesh and Reshep
« on: August 23, 2017, 07:39:44 pm »
As I said in my introduction, I have questions about deities incorporated into Egyptian religion. The two in the title are the ones that interest me the most as they seem both similar to Middle East(and some academics would even say Greek) deities, but their names seem to have been changed a bit and their pictures look Egyptian.

I also wonder why they are paired with Min, as he seems purely Egyptian from what I read.

Offline Sedjfaiemitui

  • Shemsu
  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #1 on: August 24, 2017, 02:37:03 am »
Em hotep nefer, Celeste! :D

To give a short(ish) answer for now:

Min is "Lord of the East," which designates Him as an automatic associate of Eastern or "Asiatic" deities. Min belongs to a particular category of deities with a great degree of "Foreign Rulership" ascribed to Them, however "native Egyptian" in origin most of Them are. Next to Min, the Gods Set, Sopdu, Sopdu-as-Bes, various Heru/Horus-Gods, etc., exist within this category. Most of these "Lords of the East" are occasionally shown in Asiatic dress. Min, however -- at least to the present extent of my knowledge concerning the surviving iconographic evidence -- is not shown that way.

The lion's share of (published) stelae depicting the Min-Qudšu/Kadesh-Rašpu/Rešep triad hail from Deir el-Medina, nearish to Waset/Thebes and Gebtu/Koptos (two places where Min had pronounced presence), where Egyptianized Levantine deities happened to be fairly popular additions to local Egyptian "families of Gods." This had a lot to do with where Levantine hostages and immigrants ultimately settled and worked, following the Levantine campaigns of the Thutmosids (namely Djehutymose/Thutmosis III's), Horemheb, and of the Ramesside Kings. The Eastern Mediterranean was hotly-contested territory between the Egyptians, the Medes (a pre-Persian Iranian Kingdom), the Hittites, Mesopotamian groups (ESPECIALLY Neo-Assyrian Kings), and later Achaemenid Persians. Possession of various, resource-rich territories in the Levant changed hands quite a few times, though for much of Antiquity the Egyptian Empire dominated what is now Southeast Jordan, Israel, and coastal Lebanon. Egyptian conquerors were not terribly fond of "Asiatics" themselves, despite hostages taken from noble Levantine families being raised as Egyptian as possible, and despite even Levantine slaves entering Egyptian priesthoods and occasionally elevating themselves to fairly high priestly positions. There was an existing Egyptian custom, however, to honor the deities of whatever place they were in, and Egyptian Kings and indeed many soldiers were quite fond of the deities native to the lands they conquered. Djehutymose III demonstrated a particularly strong affinity for the local Levantine deities during and after his campaigns in the Levant.

There is a fat handful of locations where Egyptianized Levantine deities took especial hold by the New Kingdom Period. Among these are: Djanet/Tanis; Mennefer/Memphis; Henen-nesu/Herakleopolis Magna; and Waset/Thebes. The associations and Divine genealogies created in these economically- and religiously-influential centers persisted well into the Persian and Ptolemaic Periods, and were communicated to other cult centers further afield. We see this demonstrated particularly well at one of my favourite temples: the Persian Period temple of Hebet/Hibis in the El Khargeh Oasis, one of the oases in the Western Desert. Rešep and the Astaret-Goddesses are shown in reliefs at Hebet as part of the extensive family of Gods at Henen-nesu, with Rešep being named explicitly as "Son of the Lord of Henen-nesu" (this Lord being Herishef/Arsaphes).

I have a modest pile of books and articles on Egyptian-Levantine interactions, as well as Mesopotamian-Levantine and native Levantine developments in cultic expressions, particularly where it concerns Ba'l-Haddu and Rešep. If you'd like, I can do a more detailed resource-dump for you here when I have more time. :)

I hope this was helpful to you!

Senebty,
Sedjfai
« Last Edit: August 24, 2017, 02:43:14 am by Sedjfaiemitui »
"Endowed by Two Fathers"
𓁣 𓁠
Sat Set her Amun-Re-Banebdjedet
Meryt Herishef, Wesir-Narefy, Heru-Wer, her Yinepu

Offline Celeste913

  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #2 on: August 25, 2017, 06:37:06 pm »
Thank you for your reply, it was very helpful. I was unaware of Levantine deities separate from the Phoenicians. I would appreciate some sources when you have time.

Offline Sedjfaiemitui

  • Shemsu
  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #3 on: August 26, 2017, 03:53:56 am »
Em hotep nefer, Celeste! :D

This first reply is going to be all preliminary commentary about "Canaanites" and "Phoenicians" and so forth. The comment I post after this one is going to be an annotated bibliography of textbooks. The third comment will be an annotated list of academic journal articles.

To start with a note about Phoenicians v. other Levantine peoples:

The term "Phoenician," which comes from Greek Phoinike ("Land of Purple"), designates Iron Age Levantine peoples, namely those in coastal areas and in colonies further afield along the Western and Northern coasts of North Africa, Southern Spain, and some of the islands within the Mediterranean. "Phoenician" doesn't as a term represent any single, unified culture, but rather a time period, specific city-states, and artistic styles belonging to each -- as well as genetic populations, id est a particular Ancient ethnicity -- to which we can attribute (some) ultimate Bronze Age Levantine origins.

The term "Punic," which we get from Latin Punicus in turn from Poenus, refers specifically to Carthaginians, who were a Phoenician people. "Punic" and "Phoenician" are -- albeit under very specific historiographical circumstances -- sometimes interchangeable. "Canaanite," however, is not interchangeable with these, despite referring to some "original" mainland Levantine groups and city-states -- along with their cultural and religious mores -- that later contribute to the things we call "Phoenician." "Canaanite" is a term (sensible) scholars confine to the religious habits and peoples belonging to certain city-states between Syria and coastal Lebanon during the Bronze Age. Its meaning has been more muddled than most realize by Hebrew Biblical material and the dominant Biblical interpretations of some noteworthy individuals throughout history, to the point where I cannot in good conscience use it without deploying scare-quotes. :P The term "Canaanite" does come from a legitimate word in the Ugaritic language and its cognates in other West Semitic languages, kna'n, designating a particular region in West Asia (and Egyptians used an altered form of that word to describe the people who came from there: knanw). However, no so-called "Canaanite" person called themselves "a Canaanite." Their identities were predicated on family/clan/tribe and on city-state before anything else. Levantine city-states -- not even that of the much later, loose Confederacy of five city-states, being Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, whose people were called "Philistines" (a word we get from the Luwian language and from Hebrew; our Modern spelling comes from the Latin form) -- could not and did not lay claim to the sort of "proto-national identity" that those living within and at the height of the Egyptian Empire or the Neo-Assyrian Empire could have and did in fact have occasion to express.

A final, important note here for anyone reading that doesn't know already: the Hebrew Biblical Book of Exodus and its telling of the captivity of Israelites in Egypt does not describe an actual historical event. The sorts of things described within Exodus were, however, practices the Egyptian Empire was known to employ. Egyptians absolutely did take slaves out of the Levant routinely from the early 18th Dynasty until the Neo-Assyrian Emperor Aššur-bāni-apli conquered the Northern portion of Egypt proper in the 660s BCE (all without even having to leave his capital of Nineveh to do it!). But "Israelite people" as such did not exist at the time the events within Exodus are said to have occurred. Nothing resembling a fundamental State we could call "Israelite" existed until the 10th century BCE -- a long, long time after Ramessu II (the Nisut many like to think was Biblical "Pharaoh," but for reasons of people not living to be 300 years old obviously couldn't have been) lived, ruled, and eventually passed into the Beautiful West in the late 13th century BCE. Levantine slaves absolutely never built the Old Kingdom pyramids at Giza, nor the sphinx at the same location (though, fun fact, Levantine peoples did come to consider that depiction of Heru-em-Akhet / Harmachis to likewise be a theophany of Hurun).

(Pt. 1 of 3)

« Last Edit: August 26, 2017, 07:52:20 am by Sedjfaiemitui »
"Endowed by Two Fathers"
𓁣 𓁠
Sat Set her Amun-Re-Banebdjedet
Meryt Herishef, Wesir-Narefy, Heru-Wer, her Yinepu

Offline Sedjfaiemitui

  • Shemsu
  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #4 on: August 26, 2017, 03:58:18 am »
Now, for sources . . .

The list to follow is pretty Rešep-heavy, though mentions of the deities Hauron / Horanu / Hurun, Qudšu, Ba'l-Haddu / "Baal," 'Anat, and the Astarte-Goddesses occur throughout. Some of these texts focus on the Egyptian evidence, and some of them focus on Levantine and wider Ancient Near Eastern evidence and their historical contexts. Some of the texts I am about to list, additionally, focus on the political and cultural backgrounds. It may seem "boring" or "irrelevant," but in order to understand some shifts in religious habit and thought, one has to understand, for example, when Egypt launched campaigns into Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel-Palestine, and how Egypt under various Pharaohs managed its Levantine colonies. Political alliances and military conquests and large (forced) exoduses of certain Levantine groups go a long way in explaining why Egyptianized Levantine religious expressions took the forms they did.

TEXTBOOKS

Albertz, Rainer, and Rüdiger Schmitt. Family and Household Religion in Ancient Israel and the Levant. Eisenbrauns: Winona Lake, 2012.

^ This texts goes into great detail about the decentralized nature of Levantine religions in their "native" contexts. It also compares and contrasts the archaeological evidence with Biblical evidence. Some mention of Levantine deities common to pre-Judaic Israelite religions and other Levantine religions are discussed, but nothing like a detailed cultic history is given for any of Them. Short of the long: this focuses on discernible habits.

Borghouts, J. F. Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts. Leiden: Brill, 1978.

^ Bringing this short monograph up because there are a couple spells featuring Ba'l-Haddu and Rešep here. It's not what I’d call “necessary reading” on the subject at hand, but it might be of some interest to you.

Brody, Aaron J. ‘Each Man Cried Out to His God’ : The Specialized Religion of Canaanite and Phoenician Seafarers. Cambridge: Harvard Semitic Museum, 1999.

^ Can't recommend this monograph enough. It talks about a "limited" aspect of massive and diverse religions, of course, and it isn't a very lengthy text, but Brody provides some vital insights here. Definitely a “Baal-Gods”-heavy text, with some mention of Levantine Goddesses.

Coogan, Michael D., and Mark S. Smith. Stories from Ancient Canaan, Second Edition. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2012.

Cornelius, Izak. The Iconography of the Canaanite Gods Reshef and Baʻal: Late Bronze and Iron Age I Periods (ca. 1500-1000 BCE). Fribourg: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994.

Cornelius, Izak. The Many Faces of the Goddess: The Iconography of the Syro-Palestinian Goddesses Anat, Astarte, Qedeshet, and Asherah (ca. 1500-1000 BCE). Fribourg: Academic Press, 2004.

Cross, Frank Moore. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973.

^ Similar deal as Albertz and Schmitt's text, but focusing on Ancient Levantine literary evidence (and some onomastic evidence) with only minor references to archaeological evidence. This one does spend noticeably more time on the deities Themselves, though again, you aren’t going to have extensive, detailed cultic histories or ritual manuscripts laid out before your eyes here.

Fulco, William J. The Canaanite God Rešep. New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1976.

^ This covers a great deal of the Egyptian evidence. Apart from Cornelius’ study, this offers the most detail about this God and His associations and significances.

Van De Mieroop, Marc. A History of the Ancient Near East, Ca. 3000 – 323 B.C. Malden: Blackwell, 2004.

Münnich, Maciej M. The God Resheph in the Ancient Near East. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013.

Pardee, Dennis, and Theodore J. Lewis. Ritual and Cult at Ugarit. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2002.

Patai, Raphael. The Hebrew Goddess , Third Enlarged Edition. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1990.

^ I don’t agree with a number of Patai’s conclusions, which I won’t detail here, but he does an admirable job of describing the appearances and natures of ‘Anat, Asherah, and the Astaret-Goddesses as They appear in religious literature. Whatever your takeaway of the text, it is an important work to read.

Podany, Amanda H. Brotherhood of Kings: How International Relations Shaped the Ancient Near East. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Pritard, Wayne T. Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times until its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 B.C.E. Eisenbrauns: Winona Lake, 1987.

^ This is an excellent case-study of how the Egyptian Empire “managed” its control over its captive Levantine city-states. Where Redford does the necessary service of explaining general trends in Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Pritard here gets into the cracks and crevices to deliver choice details. Damascus’ story was/is the story of so many city-states throughout the Levant, a bull of a city circled by the lions of a few different Empires.

Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient times. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

^ Redford's details about cults are a bit off in that particular text of his, but it doesn't particularly impact the rest of the content he delivers. He more than effectively conveys the nature of Egyptian-Levantine relations over long periods of time.

Te Velde, Herman. Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. 2nd Ed. English Translation by Mrs. G. E. van Baaren-Pape. Leiden : Brill, 1977.
 
^ The relationship between Set and Ba'l-Haddu is explored in-depth here.

Smith, Mark S. The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990.

^ This text of Mark S. Smith's clears up A LOT of common misconceptions concerning Levantine religions and Early Judaism. Absolutely read this one, because it'll help you understand what you need to "unlearn" right away so you can understand this sort of material better and more quickly.

Smith, Mark S., and Wayne T. Pritchard. The Ugaritic Baal Cycle. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994.

(Pt. 2 of 3)
"Endowed by Two Fathers"
𓁣 𓁠
Sat Set her Amun-Re-Banebdjedet
Meryt Herishef, Wesir-Narefy, Heru-Wer, her Yinepu

Offline Sedjfaiemitui

  • Shemsu
  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #5 on: August 26, 2017, 06:34:36 am »
JOURNAL ARTICLES

Allon, Niv. “Seth is Baal: Evidence from the Egyptian Script.” Ägypten und Levante (International Journal for Egyptian Archaeology and Related Disciplines), Vol. 27 (2007), pp. 15 - 22.

^ Pretty self-explanatory by the title. This is an exploration of the semantic and iconographic links between Ba’l-Haddu and Set within Egypt and Egyptian texts. Accompanied by helpful visuals.

Ayali-Darshan, Noga. ” ‘The Bride of the Sea’ — The Traditions About Astarte and Yamm in the Ancient Near East.” A Woman of Valor : Jerusalem Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Joan Goodnick Westenholz. Edited by Wayne Horowitz, Uri Gabbay, Filip Vukosavović.

^ Discusses the assimilation of the so-called “Baal Cycle” into Egyptian religion(s), with Set and Ba’l-Haddu occupying the same space in the narrative.

Cruz-Uribe. “Stḫ ꜥꜣ pḥty, ‘Seth, God of Power and Might.” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 45 (2009), pp. 201 -226.

^ On page 208, Cruz-Uribe describes in the body of the text and in the footnotes how Set is occasionally depicted on horseback, which is a distinctly Egyptianized Levantine iconographic element, namely of Rešep and the Astaret-Goddesses. Other Gods native to Egyptian religion(s) are not typically known to be described, nor depicted, as horsemen. 

Van Dijk, Jacobus. "ʿAnat, Seth and the Seed of Preʿ", in: Scripta Signa Vocis. Studies about Scripts, Scriptures, Scribes and Languages in the Near East, presented to J. H. Hospers by his pupils, colleagues and friends. Edited by H. L. J. Vanstiphout, K. Jongeling, F. Leemhuis and G. J. Reinink (Groningen, 1986), 31–51.

Van Dijk, Jacobus. “The Canaanite God Hauron and His Cult in Egypt.” GM, No. 107 (1989), pp. 59 - 68.

Van Dijk, Jacobus. “The Authenticity of the Arslan Tash Amulets.” Iraq, Vol. 54 (1992), pp. 65 - 68.

^ For all of Jacobus Van Dijk’s publications listed here, here is a directory of PDFs direct from the scholar himself. Enjoy!

Giveon, Raphael. “Review Article: Resheph in Egypt.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 66 (1980), pp. 144 - 150.

^ Partially a review of Fulco’s text on Rešep. More than simply being a review, Giveon goes into helpful detail about the progression of Rešep’s worship, and how worshipers across various periods approached Him. We learn from Giveon that Rešep is a royal God (thanks to Amenhotep II), yet is also a God of the meek and humble, a “Hearer of Prayers.” Giveon rightly trounces the misled notion that the gazelle is an “obnoxious animal,” and that Rešep gains an association with the gazelle since Rešep is at once a pestilential deity and a deity Who heals, restores, gives life, and ensures ma’at. However, “the gazelle as chaos animal and manifestation of Set-as-Evil-God” motif is, as Giveon correctly states, a fairly late introduction into Egyptian religious thought and iconographic representation. Rather, it is because Rešep is a God of the Desert that the gazelle becomes an animal of His. Further, Giveon mentions a seal from Gaza depicting Rešep saving a herd of gazelle from a lion. This demonstrates three things: 1.) the gazelle is not innately an “evil animal,” 2.) the gazelle is clearly representative of Rešep  and His devotees, and 3.) Rešep is a “Shepherd of His Devotees.” He is a rescuer (hence His probable association with the youthful Horus-God called Shed) and a guide through difficult territory, both literal and figurative.

Hays, Christopher B. “The Egyptian Goddess Mut in Iron Age Palestine: Further Data from Amulets and Onomastics.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 71, No. 2 (Oct., 2012), pp. 299-314.

^ Demonstrating that cultural diffusion goes every which way, under every conceivable circumstance. ;) The adoption of Levantine deities to Egyptian religion(s) was not a one-way street. Egyptian deities were widely appropriated into Levantine religions as well, despite the political hostilities that tended to exist between the Egyptian Empire and the neighbors it routinely imposed itself upon.

Hoffmeier, James K. And Kenneth A. Kitchen. “Reshep and Astarte in North Sinai: A Recently Discovered Stela from Tell El-Borg.” Ägypten und Levante (International Journal for Egyptian Archaeology and Related Disciplines), Vol. 27 (2007), pp. 127 - 136.

^ Fun stuff about Egyptian forts during the height of Empire, Egyptianized Levantine cults, and stelae. References to Izak Cornelius’ work throughout, replete with lots of informative illustrations and photographs of worksites and artifacts in situ. In the “new” artifact discussed, beloved Rešep and an Astaret-Goddess are shown as a pair. ‘Anat, Qudšu, and the usual combination of Egyptian deities are not present.

Redford, Donald B. “New Light on the Asiatic Campaigning of Ḥoremheb.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 211 (Oct., 1973), pp. 36-49 .

^ The Memphite cults of Egyptianized Levantine deities during Horemheb’s time are detailed in this article to some extent. One of the things we learn from the decorated offering bowl Redford is writing about is that ‘Anat is named explicitly as “Daughter of Ptah South-of-His-Wall” within the inscription. Rešep is named as “Lord of Heaven” in the same inscription, along with Qudšu as “Lady of the Stars of Heaven.” What Their orientation is with respect to Ptah South-of-His-Wall and ‘Anat is unclear from the text itself, though we may safely guess that They are either additional children of Ptah, or that Qudšu is Ptah’s spouse with ‘Anat and Rešep as Their two Divine offspring. Whatever the case, that They are listed together is not an accident nor the result of random chance. We can at least be certain that, if They were not related familially insofar as Memphite cult and local theology were concerned, They would not be grouped together in this way.

Simpson, William Kelly. “An Egyptian Statuette of a Phoenician God.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 6 (Feb., 1952), pp. 182-187


^ In this brief article, Simpson analyzes a beautiful-if-damaged statuette of Rešep dating to sometime during the Third Intermediate through the Late Period (the approximate range he gives is 1085 BCE - 332 BCE). He gives a brief overview of Egyptian Imperial history from the New Kingdom Period onward, along with the attendant adoption of Rešep and other Levantine deities into Egyptian cults. He goes on to compare this statuette with other artifacts known at the time held in other museums. Unlike later publications by other scholars, Simpson bothers to mention the “unimportant” detail that Rešep was a “patron of foreign and native artisans” — an under-explored attribute in favor of His more martial and magico-medical aspects — helping to further explain Rešep’s popularity among the artisans in Deir el-Medina. Anomalously, these artisan-adorers of Rešep living near Waset / Thebes were mostly Egyptians, born-and-bred, not Levantine immigrants, slaves, nor hostages. We are left to wonder how this association came to be. Perhaps this was the result of Rešep’s association with Ptah South-of-His-Wall in Mennefer / Memphis?

Te Velde, Herman. “Some Remarks on the Structure of Egyptian Divine Triads.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 57 (Aug., 1971), pp. 80-86.

^ Te Velde talks about the natures of various types of Egyptian triadic relations of deities. The Min-Qudšu-Rešep triad endemic to Deir el-Medina is discussed briefly. Here, Te Velde argues that the relationship between Them is one demonstrating “sexual relation.” That is the central, female Divinity (Qudšu) with Her two male consorts (Min, frequently identified as Amun-Re in the inscriptions on these stelae, and the equally virile Rešep).

Controverting Te Velde a smidge, I believe this may be more like a “Bull-of-His-Mother” sort of situation, similar to but not the same as the triad of Min-Heru-Kamutef (Horus-Min, Bull-of-His-Mother), Aset (Isis), and Heru-sa-Aset / Heru-pa-Khered (Horus Son of Isis / Horus the Child) endemic to Gebtu / Koptos. The Father and the Son are there shown as the “same” being in two manifested God-persons, with the female Divinity (being Aset in that instance) being a separate Divinity entirely. I think that the Min-Rešep relationship in the Deir el-Medina triadic formation could potentially be one of “God X as both Self-Engendering Father/Husband and Son to Goddess Y.” But, I could easily be wrong and Te Velde could just as easily be correct in his assumption that it is an inversion of “The Bull and His Harem” paradigm that some Gods, like Set (with ‘Anat and an Astaret-Goddess as His wives in the area of Djanet / Tanis in the Northeast Delta), are ascribed in certain locations and at certain times. Egyptian religious logic is incredibly polyvalent, so, it’s entirely possible that both Te Velde’s assumption and my assumption are correct at the same time. ;)


Wainwright, G. A. “The Origin of Storm-Gods in Egypt.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 49 (Dec., 1963), pp. 13 - 20.

^ Wainwright here describes the nature of the relationship between Min, Set, and Rešep as “Storm-Gods.” This well-established association is one of the reasons why I believe the Deir el-Medina triad expresses Min and Rešep as the self-same God as both Father/Husband and Son of Himself, but do keep my disclaimers expressed in my annotation of Te Velde’s article above in mind.

(Pt. 3 of 3)

I hope all this is of use to you, and not too overwhelming!

Senebty!
Sedjfai
« Last Edit: August 26, 2017, 07:23:29 am by Sedjfaiemitui »
"Endowed by Two Fathers"
𓁣 𓁠
Sat Set her Amun-Re-Banebdjedet
Meryt Herishef, Wesir-Narefy, Heru-Wer, her Yinepu

Offline Celeste913

  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #6 on: August 26, 2017, 12:51:31 pm »
Thank you for taking the time and effort to write out these posts. I want to assure you that I have been reading the articles and next time I go to the local library I will start searching for texts. I went to a school called Carthage College so I have studied the Phoenicians in school. I just assumed all the Baals and such were Punic deities because they are cited as being worshiped in some Phoenician and Carthaginian cities.

I am going let people on the board know what my thoughts were from reading the articles.

Van Dijk, Jacobus. “The Canaanite God Hauron and His Cult in Egypt.” GM, No. 107 (1989), pp. 59 - 68.

^ This article gave a lot of detail about this deity and where he was worshiped. I did not know this deity existed before I started this discussion and I found it interesting.

Te Velde, Herman. “Some Remarks on the Structure of Egyptian Divine Triads.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 57 (Aug., 1971), pp. 80-86.

^ This article was really good. I did see sexual tones in the inscriptions, at least in comparison to other art i have seen. I wonder if part of the reason they were became popular in some places was because it was seen as exotic. I wonder if being a foreign cult, the practices were less strict than with the native deities.

Offline Darytessekhmet

  • Rev. Daryt - Ordained Clergy - Moderator (Prayer Requests Forums)
  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #7 on: August 26, 2017, 07:43:42 pm »
Em hotep *henu*

I wanted to take the time to thank you both for this wonderful information.  It's got me on quite a tangent in my studies.  I find it all quite interesting.  They are Names I am not familiar with, but I sure have a great starting point now!

Senebty, Daryt
Daughter of Sekhmet and Nisut Hekatawy(AUS)
W'abet Nekhen sehotep.tu ib-es yim-ef, The Shrine in Which Her Heart is Appeased

Her Father controls Sekhmet, Sekhmet subdues evil, Sekhmet controls Her temper
Even small rivers keep the lands green and the oceans wet.

Offline Sedjfaiemitui

  • Shemsu
  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #8 on: August 27, 2017, 09:00:36 am »
Em hotep nefer, guys! :D

Daryt: I am glad you found this discussion interesting! It warms my heart to see others interested in the Levantine end of Egyptian religion(s). ;D

Celeste: I am super-happy that the articles I suggested have been helpful and interesting to you! I'm also jazzed to learn that you already have JSTOR or another database service access.  Not that it would've violated copyright law to have emailed you PDFs of the journal articles, but, I was a little worried I might have to impose upon you for your email address and wind up sending you a few different sets of attachments. ;D I was also a little worried my posts might've come off as intimidating and less-than-useful for lack of readily-available PDFs to go with them. I'm relieved to see that wasn't the case. (Though, for anyone else reading, if you need any of the journal articles apart from Van Dijk's, which he was so kind to make entirely public himself, shoot me a PM. It's more than legal for me to share PDFs of articles, and I don't want anyone feeling left in the dark over subjects they want to learn more about.)

Re: your point on exoticism -- I do believe there was an element of that to Their appeal in Egypt; it's not something we can rule out. Concerning the sexual end of that exoticism, both Min and Rešep have potent masculine sexual qualities assigned to Them, both being Givers-of-Life, which is yet another layer to Their mutual association. Qudšu is also clearly a sexual being, like Her Egyptian associate and counterpart Hathor -- it's not often that we see Egyptian Goddesses entirely in the nude, especially once we get into the New Kingdom Period! Ba'l-Haddu, Rešep, the Astaret-Goddesses, and 'Anat all get Egyptian dress; Qudšu is frequently left-out in that department, and there was a good deal more to that iconographic decision than simply "keeping Her origins intact" -- indeed, as Albertz and Schmitt note in the textbook I recommended, in the interests of religious syncretism, when it is successful, a God's "foreignness" is largely if not completely occluded, and He or She simply becomes regarded as a fundamentally "native" deity.

Anyway. There is certainly no denying the "sexual tones" of many of the Deir el-Medina stelae. Really, the only major question that exists there is "how separately are we to regard the Divine persons of Min and Rešep at Deir el-Medina?"

Beyond exoticism, however defined, we do have plenty of evidence to confirm that Levantine deities' popularity, at least initially, had to do with the Egyptian conquest of the Levant and the idea that Levantine deities had "transferred Their favor" to Egyptian Kings, Egyptian soldiers, and Egyptian people in general, with these Gods having "turned away" from legitimizing the autonomy of Their native Levantine city-states.

Egypt had been in contact and trading with the Levant since Predynastic times, but it wasn't until the Thutmosid campaigns that we see Levantine Gods becoming even remotely popular or "nativized" in Egypt on a "national" scale.

I'm looking forward to hearing more of your feedback on the other sources, and any you come across along the way! :D

Senebty,
Sedjfai
"Endowed by Two Fathers"
𓁣 𓁠
Sat Set her Amun-Re-Banebdjedet
Meryt Herishef, Wesir-Narefy, Heru-Wer, her Yinepu

Offline Sedjfaiemitui

  • Shemsu
  • Country: us
Re: Qadesh and Reshep
« Reply #9 on: November 07, 2018, 09:57:16 pm »
Em hotep nefer, all!

I'm resurrecting this thread to include an article from my mountainous stash, which I previously neglected to include, which builds off of some notes in Fulco's monograph on Rešep and likewise mentions some things Cornelius goes into greater detail over. Alan Schulman's article is a bit redundant and outdated in a number of respects, but I thought might still be helpful to some who cannot get access to the full text of the latter two (though a good chunk of Cornelius' text is viewable via Google Books' preview function). These particular notes also place some "unusual" qualities/arrangements of Rešep front-and-center, which recently came up in discussions held elsewhere that I felt would be nice to carry-over here. :)

Schulman, Alan R. "The Winged Reshep." Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 16 (1979), pp. 69-84

Schulman lists Anhur as sometimes taking the place of Min in triads which include Rešep and Qudšu "as usual," as in the case of a relief in the Temple of Mut at Ipet-Sut (which Fulco mentions briefly), and on an unprovenanced amulet dedicated by Horemheb-Merity.

Edward Butler and I discussed this particular arrangement a few weeks back, and although I can't quite reason it out as such for its inconsistencies vis-à-vis typical "Distant Goddess" narratives, he suggested that an arrangement of Rešep and Qudšu including Anhur might be referencing some "Distant Goddess" narrative variant. It's a tenable possibility, at any rate, since Qudšu is a Hathor-Goddess, after all, and since Anhur takes part in the "Distant Goddess" myths.

Also of interest is a "triad" (not filial in nature, and They're not shown together in the same register) of Amun-Re, Set, and Rešep on a funerary stela from the Temple of Amunhotep III at Wadi Es-Sebua, Nubia, dedicated by one Matyba'al (rendered m3ty-bꜥr, since there is no distinct, functional "L"-sound in Egyptian language versus its cousin West and East Afro-Asiatic languages. As in Japanese, "L" and "R" are self-same in Egyptian ;) ). Whereas Schulman gives a rather barebones summary of the object, Izak Cornelius (The Iconography of the Gods Reshef and Baal, pp. 66 - 7) gives us the break-down on this stela -- though sadly without an accompanying image -- which he attributes to the Ramesside Period. This one evinces the three Netjeru as Lords of Foreign Lands and as Pharaonic Protectors of fringe-territories, as evidenced by Amun-Re's epithet "Lord of the Roads." Rešep, meanwhile, is denoted in the inscription as "Lord of the Sky," which we can safely assume is a nod to His quality as a Heru-God -- Heru-Gods frequently being Divine "Watchmen on the Wall" for the garrisons manning border outposts.

I am presently unable to get hold of Labib Habachi's "Five Stelae from the Temple of Amenophis III at Es-Seboua' now in the Aswan Museum" in Kush Vol. 8 (1960), which offers an image of Matyba'al's stela. The Aswan Museum does not have a digital catalogue, insofar as I have been able to find, so I cannot look it up that way. Once I have a scan of the stela in-hand, though, I will post an image of it, if anyone else is interested. :)

Senebty!
Sedjfai
"Endowed by Two Fathers"
𓁣 𓁠
Sat Set her Amun-Re-Banebdjedet
Meryt Herishef, Wesir-Narefy, Heru-Wer, her Yinepu

 


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