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Author Topic: Lexikon der Agyptologie Translations  (Read 1289 times)

Online Rev. Ma'atnofret

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Re: Lexikon der Agyptologie Translations
« Reply #15 on: April 20, 2021, 06:42:32 pm »
Soknopaios
Appearance of the god Sobek in the form of a crocodile with a falcon's head, especially in Dimeh (Soknopaiou Nesos), but also worshiped in other places of the Faijum such as Krokodilopois, Neilupolis and Pelusium. The name Soknopaios means "Suchos, lord of the island" (Sbk-nb-p3-jw, demotic Sbk-nb-Paj, also written Sbk-Paj and the like). A very large number of Greek and Demot. Papyri and Ostraka (the demotic mostly unpublished) provides detailed information about the priesthood of Soknopaios and the goddesses Isis Nephremmis and Isis Nepherses associated with him as well as about the function of Soknopaios as oracle and healing god and about some feast days (Soknopaios' birth festival on 7 . Hathyr). A demotic hymn to Soknopaius (Pap. Strasbourg 31) has not yet been deciphered.
A'Aqytsekhmet "Sekhmet's Servant"
Sat Sekhmet meryt Sobek-Ra, Yinepu, Nebthet, Nefertem, Wenut, Sokar-Wesir, Heru-wer
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Online Rev. Ma'atnofret

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Re: Lexikon der Agyptologie Translations
« Reply #16 on: April 21, 2021, 07:13:31 am »
Schemanefer
Sm'-nfr is the name of a crocodile-god (Krokodildkulte), mentioned and represented to Esna as the son of Neith. His name means "The long and narrow (god) who is good", a name that the god owed to his general appearance, rather than "The handsome Southern". Onomastics also teaches us that Shemanefer was not only venerated in Upper Egypt. The study of demotic and Greek attestations of the divine names Semenouphis and Samanouphis appearing in encumbered texts of the 3rd / 2nd century BC. J.-Chr., Respectively an inscription without provenance and a papyrus found at Elephantine. Note also that a hieroglyphic example of the anthoponym is found in an unpublished Chicago papyrus, probably coming from the Esna region.
A'Aqytsekhmet "Sekhmet's Servant"
Sat Sekhmet meryt Sobek-Ra, Yinepu, Nebthet, Nefertem, Wenut, Sokar-Wesir, Heru-wer
Nekhen Iakhu Ihy Neferu Khau
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Online Rev. Ma'atnofret

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Re: Lexikon der Agyptologie Translations
« Reply #17 on: April 21, 2021, 08:40:07 am »
Mehen
Mehen the "ringed snake": 1. In the Amduat it protects the sun god in the underworld from the 7th hour of the night, is also otherwise the patron god in the underworld and is also brought as such by Isis to her son Horus. They are also referred to as "living in shapes". 2. for the name of a game see snake game.
A'Aqytsekhmet "Sekhmet's Servant"
Sat Sekhmet meryt Sobek-Ra, Yinepu, Nebthet, Nefertem, Wenut, Sokar-Wesir, Heru-wer
Nekhen Iakhu Ihy Neferu Khau
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Online Rev. Ma'atnofret

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Re: Lexikon der Agyptologie Translations
« Reply #18 on: April 21, 2021, 06:36:19 pm »
Min
I. Name and symbol: gr. Min according to Äg. Mnw (etymology unclear: name similarity with Amun probably only apparent), written with the Min hieroglyph (earliest evidence: a. Naqada palette, b. Archaic statues from Koptos, c. Tablets from the tomb of Qaa) of different shapes (later often replaced by z-hieroglyph); interpreted as a thunderbolt (not convincing), double arrowheads etc.
II. Iconography of the Min and his attributes.
1. Shape: Min is consistently anthropomorphic, represented (anthopomorphism): ithyphallic; with a raised right arm holding a scourge (possibly borrowed from Horus [cf. royal epithet Hrw tm3- '"Horus with a strong arm"], so the aspect of the god of the king); Crown made from pair of falcon feathers, sometimes with a sun disk (feathers and feather crown); tape falling from head; Beard; left hand embraces the phallus (only recognizable as a round shape, left arm "covered" in the flat; fertility pitted). The almost always undivided body is not to be understood as mummy-shaped. The archaic statues from Koptos go back to Hermen and are forerunners of the canonical representation.

2. Attributes: A round hut or a lettuce field is often depicted behind Min: a.) Round hut (occupied since dynasty 6) of cylindrical or upwardly tapering shape with an elongated top (the original probably made of perishable material), since dynasty 12 with an entrance gate on which a pair of cattle horns (bucranion) and a spiral wound ribbon are attached (they can also be on a stick in front of the gate: j3wt symbol) previously interpreted as a rock chapel, pillar or as a massive structure, but the similarity with residential buildings from Punt is likely to be an accessible building (hut; round buildings) and non-sag. Origin show (climbing for min); the name zhn is first taken from Greek, wogl related to suspected "climbing frame". b.) Lattichfeld: Rectangular Fled in plan (can be replaced by a table or chapel facade) with lettuce plants (lettuce; fertility mask) placed on top.

III. Aspects of the Min: Min is a local god in the eastern desert, in Koptos and Achmim. He embodies fertility (human: ithyphallic figure, lettuce field; animal: white bull at the Minfest; vegetable: god of vegetation, see also harvest, driving the calves, Minfest). Min is King god (connection with Horus; as well in Pyr .; in standard escort he is one of the royal powers) and king of the gods. In addition to his connection with Horus and Amun, the one with Ra should be mentioned in particular.

IV. Distribution of the Min cult and origin of the Min
1. Distribution: The main cult areas or places of the Min are the eastern desert, Koptos and Achmim. In addition, Memphis, ABydos and Theban are to be mentioned and in Greek-Roman. Zt Dendara, Edfu and Philae.
2. Origin: The theories about the origin of the Min are connected with its main cult sites (documented there at the latest since the Thinness of the Age) and are related to the question of whether Min was originally an Äg. or not God be. The Äg. Statements about the origin of the Min refer to Punt, the eastern mountainous countries or Nubia, but are probably all secondary, i.e. they can be explained from the spread of the worship of the Min. Modern attempts to Min as the rain god with late proposed. Conditions in Middle Aeg. Link zi, remain in the uncertain.
For a non-day Origin of the Min, especially the archaic statues from Koptos have been claimed. They contain incised motifs (interpretation partly controversial), which indeed give references to the Red Sea (Pteroceras mussel, sawfish saws) and (eastern) mountain lands (animals on mountainous hills), but perhaps only a hiking and trade route between Koptos and indicate the Red Sea. A non-day is very likely. Element in the ritual of "climbing for Min" can be grasped, which seems to go back to the establishment of a portable Min cult site by (east desert) nomads: Min as a nomad god. It is unclear whether the fertility aspect of Min, which was documented early (Coptic statues), goes back to the nomad god.

V. The most important cult areas. 1. Eastern desert: In Wadi Hammamat, Min is from Pepi I on (already as Gbtwj "the Koptite" or nb Gbtw "Lord of Koptos") all the way to gr-roman. Currently occupied. In Pepi I and Mentuhotep IV. It is specifically associated with the Sedfest. The latter obtained his royal legitimation as the son of Min, with whom he had a Kamutef relationship, during an expedition carried out by the vizier Amenemhat. The "mountain" (south wall of the main valley) is in this context as the residence and place of worship of the Min. Intersection of the earthly and heavenly (t3 3htjw) and the center of the tw-ntr "God's land", the dominion of the Min.

North Min is tangible from Wadi Hammamat in Wadi el-Gasus: on a stele of the MR and on representations of the SpZt. Since Min belonged to the Abydos family, he is also in the temple

v. Kanais (as ithyphallic Amun-Ra) present. In large parts there was a Paneion (Interpretatio graeca) here as well as in the Wadi Hammamat ("Chapel of Nectanebos"). In the desert regions, Min is the protector of travelers, also in Greek.

2. Koptos: Although the Min cult has been documented since the French era, a temple was only found in Dynasty 6 (Koptos decree Pepi II). In Koptos and Achmim the king-god aspect dominates (connection with Horus [also as Hrw-Mnw]; this is how Isis came to Koptos as mother and wife of Min [Kamutef]: formation of Min-Harsiese) in addition to the function of Min as a local god .

3. Achmim: Mnw Jpwj calls the tablet of Qa-a "Min of Achmim". The nome sign of the 9th or similar nomes (Gau 9. o.äg.) contains a Min-hieroglyphic element (documented since dynasty 4). A Min temple has been known since NR: Rock temple of Eje (erected by the 1st prophet of Min, Nht-Mnw), in ptol. Expanded at the moment. The title nb Jpw "Herr von Achmim"  is also occupied since NR.

4. Memphis and Abydos: In the Memphis area, the Min cult can only be identified from a few texts of different genres and times: "Forming (the statue) of Min" is mentioned on the Palermostein, the festival prt-Mnw "Excerpt of the Min "(Minfest) in a private grave (Dynasty 5) and in the solar sanctuary of Niuserre. In Abydos the tablet of Qa-a testifies to contact with Akhmim. A representation of Min is preserved on a vessel fragment from the tomb of Chasechemui. Min is particularly documented on so-called Abydos steles. He is connected to the Osiris circle as Horus (Harendotes), i.e. as the king god, so that he undoubtedly came to Abydos from Koptos or Achmim.

5. Thebes: In Dynasty 11, Min enters into a syncretic connection with Amun or Amun-Ra, into which he brings the ithyphallic form (which has been next to the normal human form of Amun since Mentuhotep II) and the Kamutef aspect (king god- and gods king attributes Contribution of Ra). The Syncretistic formation of the Amun-Ra is tangible in outline as a development (e.g. differences between the ideas of the Master Mentuhotep II and the Master Sesostris I). In this context, Mentohotep IV's strong reference to Min of Koptos in Wadi Hammamat is to be classified, just as the proximity of Koptos is made responsible for the strong Min component in the Amun-Ra conception. In addition, a fundamental affinity between the "primordial god" Amun and Min can be assumed with regard to the fertility aspect. According to the NR, this aspect of fertility comes into play especially in the Amun of Luxor. On the independent Min cult in Thebes, see especially the Minfest.

A'Aqytsekhmet "Sekhmet's Servant"
Sat Sekhmet meryt Sobek-Ra, Yinepu, Nebthet, Nefertem, Wenut, Sokar-Wesir, Heru-wer
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Online Rev. Ma'atnofret

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Re: Lexikon der Agyptologie Translations
« Reply #19 on: April 22, 2021, 01:49:52 pm »
Minfest
The Minfest is only shown in detail in the Ramesseum and in Medinet Habu, but in an abbreviated form or according to preserved remains since the MR in Karnak, Luxor and Medinet Habu and has been documented in text since the FrZt, albeit under different names. In FrZt it is perhaps to be understood under "Birth of Min" (mswt Mnw), if not with mswt "Creation and Consecration of the statue of Min" is meant, but weighed Tb17 speaks. The understanding of "creating a statue" would be for early history insofar as a certain year was designated (i.e. not repeated every year with natural necessity).

In the festival lists of the AR, the Minfest is called "Excerpt of the Min" (prt Mnw), which expresses another phase of the festival, which lasted many days and which was probably only fully developed under Ramses II, which was perceived as dominant. In the NR, prt Mnw and mswt Mnw are equated. In Medinet Habu it is a "festival of stairs" with the possible meaning of "stairs" as a high-level threshing floor (climbing for min).

The "Exodus of Min to the Staircase" (prt Mnw r ht) is celebrated on the main festival day, on the 11th Pachons. Although the Minfest is one of the old "festivals of the sky" (festivals), it was classified early in the changing year, in NR on the eve of the new moon in the month of Pachons, the I month of the prt season, as the main festival of the harvest month

The time-honored and extensive harvest festival took place in several phases, among which sacrifices and processions, as a specific feature, however, the sickle and offering of a sheaf of wheat and the otherwise known sending out in front of four messenger birds form the main ceremonies.

Contaminated from the various representations and texts, the following sequence emerges: The king (with blue helmet) is carried by his sons with a large entourage to the temple of the harvest god Min in a litter (according to Gauthier: 1st episode). Most of the procession participants - royal relatives, priests, musicians, frond-bearers, soldiers - are adorned with feathers on their heads in Medinet Habu. In the 2nd episode the hrj-hbbt makes sacrifices to the god who is called "Amun-Ra-Kamutef". In the 3rd episode, Min is led out of his sanctuary in a procession led by the king (with a crown and the like) to the "stairs" after which the festival is named, i.e. to that freschtenne or to a kiosk with a stepped base; the porters walk under a star-studded carpet. The "white bull" (bulls, hgl.) Goes "at the head of the god", "the supreme hrj-hbt read the dance hymn", standard bearers are incorporated, and also "the statues of the deceased kings of O. u . Etc. were with him. " The ancestors who are carried in the procession in the form of their statues include, in addition to the kings of NR, Mentuhotep as the founder of the first Theban dynasty and Menes as the founder of the empire. The royal ancestors are also included in the festival through the songs of praise for the god, the ka of the king and also for them.

In the picture (by Medinet Habu) follows the 4th episode - which should be thought of as a conclusion according to the text - after which the king walks around the "stairs" and lets a dove (or goose) fly up on all four sides with the message: "Horus, the son of Isis and the son of Osiris has taken the white and red crown. King NN has taken the white and red crown." The newly established power of the king is thus proclaimed in all directions, the re-established rule also expressed in the king's robe (double crown).

In the festival-specific 5th episode, the king cuts off a sheaf of grain in front of the shrine of Min with a copper sickle lined with gold (3zh jt) and presents it (sometimes through a priest) as a thanksgiving offering to the god; an ear of it is given to the king. According to the general symbolism of sacrifice, the ceremony of sickling has the sub-sense of defeating the enemies of both god and king (harvest ceremonies).

The royal wife is also present at the feast, and, since she is handling the sistrum and menit, probably as the sm'jt mentioned in the text. She is the only female being in the picture and thus led Jacobsohn to the interpretation of a mother mating (Kamutef).

The festival is rich in individual decorations and ceremonies. According to Herodotus, gymnastic games and competitions were also organized. Its meaning is fulfilled in the fact that nature, which has been robbed and injured by the harvest, is pacified and the land is given new harvest blessings. In a second aspect the king may have been reaffirmed in both his fertility and his power of victory. However, the interpretation of the Minfest is still controversial. "Climbing for Min", which is claimed as a separate scene, is closely linked to the Minfest on the Ramses II pylon in Luxor. See also driving the four calves.
A'Aqytsekhmet "Sekhmet's Servant"
Sat Sekhmet meryt Sobek-Ra, Yinepu, Nebthet, Nefertem, Wenut, Sokar-Wesir, Heru-wer
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Online Rev. Ma'atnofret

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Re: Lexikon der Agyptologie Translations
« Reply #20 on: April 22, 2021, 05:42:56 pm »
Bast

Bast "those of Bubastis" (formation of gods) is the name of an old lion goddess. Bubastis is probably their real home; but already in the AR she was also venerated in Memphis, where she is equated with the Sachmet. Therefore, like this, she is called "Mistress of Anchtaui ('nh t3wj), but also" Mistress of Chabes (H3bs). "Her cult in Heliopolis is also old, where she is" Daughter of Atum "(= Tefnut, CT I 250) A place called "Hill of Bast" near Herakleopolis points to a place of worship there. There was also a temple of Bast in the eastern delta in "B3-jr-r3-st on the water of Ra". In Bubastis she was considered the mother of that place Lion god Ma'ahes, who is also called her son as lord of the 10 o.äg Gaues. She is also equated with Hathor in the AR and since the MR with the mother. When it says in Edfu that in Bubastis Bast is the "soul of the." Isis ", this is less a real equation of the goddesses than an attempt, typical of the time, to demonstrate the unity of the divine by identifying local gods.

Her connections to the king are old: Chephren is represented together with her in a round sculpture; on a seal cylinder, Schepseskaf calls himself "loved by Hathor-Bast". It is uncertain whether the connection with the king goes through the identification of the goddess with the lion throne or with the crown. Pyr 892 she is named next to the king as being to whom the dead did not come too close. Amenemhat III says in a hymn "He is Bast who protects the two countries." In Abydos, Sethos I calls himself as a priest "Anubis son of Bast" and "Son of Bast" is the epithet Osokon II in the Cartographic. Bast only gradually changes from lioness to cat and one differentiates a "wild Bast" from a peaceful one or also says of the returning goddess "She rages (nsn) as Sachmet, she is peaceful (htp) as Bast". As a cat, she is well known in the SpZt and into ancient tradition. The numerous bronze cats and cat cemeteries in Bubastis, Saqqara, Tanis, Speos Artemidos, Beni Hassan, Gebel Abu Foda, Darb el Kareib, Thebes (animal burial) bear witness to this. For mythology, the inclusion of the bast in the circle of the Hathor-Tefnut as a figure of the distant goddess and personification of the (left) god's eye (= Tefnut, eye saga) is important. This was certainly not only due to the goddess-crown-eye equation, but also to its inclusion in the Heliopolitan circle of gods; for the pair of lions from Leontopolis were considered to be Schu and Tefnut, which latter was like Bast. The attempt to give her a male partner as "male Basti" (B3stj t3j) seems to be based on this.

Feasts of Bast: in Thebes 5 month, 29 day. Exit; 8 month 4th / 5th Day, feast, onion chewing for bast; in Bubastis 2 month 13th day; 5 month 13th day; 6 month 18th day; in Esna 10 month 16th day; in Memphis 11 month 13th day. A description of the festival in Bubastis can be found in Her. II 60; According to an inscription by Ramses IV, lion hunting was forbidden on their festival. Personal names formed with the name of Bast occur since the AR for both men and women (name formation).

Priest of Bast: Prophet of Bast (hm-ntr) siet AR; once also "first prophet"; Godfather; W'ab priest; often singer and Harim woman; one-time festival director of Bast; and "Great of the papyrus scepter in the house of Bast, mistress of Anchtaiu." (Ankhtawy)
A'Aqytsekhmet "Sekhmet's Servant"
Sat Sekhmet meryt Sobek-Ra, Yinepu, Nebthet, Nefertem, Wenut, Sokar-Wesir, Heru-wer
Nekhen Iakhu Ihy Neferu Khau
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